IT was a bright September Sunday, five days after the storm passed away, when the Lammermuir at length came to anchor off the foreign settlement of Shanghai. Her broken, dismantled condition made her an object of general' curiosity among the gaily-painted junks and foreign shipping ; but when it became known that she only carried missionaries, albeit the largest party that had yet come to China, interest soon subsided, and beyond a few facetious remarks in the papers little notice was taken of the new arrivals.

To themselves that quiet Sunday was specially grateful. They did not go ashore, and out on the river were protected from many visitors. Their hearts were full of thankfulness for recent deliverances-more wonderful, even, than they realised at the time. A vessel coming in soon after their own proved to have lost sixteen out of a ship's company of twenty-two, while on the Lammermuir none were missing or seriously injured ; and no sooner had they reached a place of safety than terrific gales again swept the coast, which in their disabled condition` they could not possibly have weathered.

" God grant that having been brought so near to eternity and then spared for awhile," wrote one of the party, " our lives may be more entirely devoted to Him and to the work before us. Through all I never felt the, least regret, or anything but joy in the thought that I had come."

The voyage over, Mr. Taylor's difficulties were in a sense begun. Looking out on that familiar scene-the crowded river, the European houses along the Bund, and the wall of the Chinese city beyond-he realised in a very practical way the responsibilities that had come to him. Where was he to find accommodation for so large a party that would afford the facilities required ? Boxes from the hold, more or less soaked with sea water, and all the baggage from the cabins had to be unpacked, dried, and rearranged. Much must be left in Shanghai for a time, as in addition to personal belongings they had with them household goods from Coborn Street, a considerable quantity of stores, printing and lithographic presses, and a large supply of drugs and medical apparatus. All these, after careful examination, needed safe dry storage, and the washing machines, mangle, and ironing-stove must be unpacked and set to work, for there was the clothing of more than twenty people to, be laundered after a four months' voyage. Little wonder he was tempted to feel anxious, remembering the difficulty of obtaining even temporary accommodation in the Settlement.1-{1 It is impossible, in view of the cosmopolitan city of to-day, to imagine how primitive were the conditions in Shanghai as recently as 1866. A temporary building, since used as a gymnasium, did duty for the Cathedral. The British Consulate, though occupying the same site as at present, was an insignificant structure. The Garden Bridge, now traversed daily by a ceaseless stream of vehicles, was so narrow that two wheelbarrows could barely pass each other, and pedestrians had to pay a three cash toll. As to conveyances, the choice lay between sedan-chairs and wheelbarrows, rickshaws not having yet come over from Japan. One of the Consuls possessed a carriage, and so did the Commissioner of Customs ; but there was little use for them, the Bund scarcely extending beyond the British Settlement, and the Nanking Road soon running off into fields and marketgardens. Other roads were just tracks and footpaths, save where they awed the river, and the Gardens of to-day were, at low tide, an unsavoury mud bank. As for the native ,city, walled in and crowded with a dense population, the less said of it the better, from a European standpoint.}

For those were not the days of Missionary Homes and Agencies. Foreign hotels were few and Very costly ; Chinese inns were out of 'the question for such a party ; and the native boats to which they might have been transferred would not have met the case. Furnished houses were rarely to be had, even if expense were no consideration, and the hospitality of European residents could not reasonably be counted on. The missionary community in Shanghai at the time consisted of only nine married and three single men ; and who among them would be able, however willing, to .receive so many visitors ? Then again, if the party had to be divided, some in one home and some in another, how 'was the work to be attended to ? Altogether the situation was complicated and would have given rise to anxiety, had it not been that, both from the Lammermuir and from friends at home, prayer had been going up for months past that the Lord would Himself see and provide.

Meanwhile, unknown to Mr. Taylor, a friend of Ningpo days had moved up to Shanghai, bringing with him the printing-press of the American Presbyterian Mission. In a semi-foreign house he was living near the Chinese city (East Gate), and with a view to future needs had purchased a disused building intended for a theatre, which formed a ' convenient warehouse or " go-down " connected with his premises. Large and empty, this building immediately suggested itself when the Lammermuir appeared in the river and he learned that it carried Mr. Taylor's party. How they must need the cheer of a friendly welcome, and some place in which to dispose their belongings ! If nothing better offered, his home was open to them, such as it was, with the " go-down " in addition. So taking a sampan1-{1 The primitive Chinese gondola.} that very afternoon, William Gamble sought out his friends to put at their disposal a bachelor's hospitality.

Almost too good to be true must it have seemed when, three days later, Mr. Taylor returned from Ningpo to remove his family and fellow-workers to the quarters thus provided. Captain Bell had insisted on their remaining on the Lammermuir meanwhile ; and though absent so short a time Mr. Taylor had been greatly prospered. Escorting Miss Rose to her future home, he had been enabled to come into touch with all the senior members of the Mission, save Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson, who were some distance inland.2 {2-In the great city of Shao-hing-fu with a quarter of a million inhabitants they had succeeded in obtaining a footing, adding thus a fourth station to those already opened by the Mission before the arrival of the Lammermuir party. Living over their little chapel at the junction of three busy streets, hard by one of the water-ways of that Venice of midChina, they were " feeling very happy and getting on with the language,"not another foreigner to be found in a long day's journey. Neng-kwei, the basket-maker of Ningpo, was their helper ; for whose story see Hudson Taylor in Early Years, pp. 461-2.} The church at Bridge Street, amid their rejoicing, had come to his help in a practical way, for which he was most thankful-sending back with him the evangelist Tsiu, one of the fruits of his own early labours, and a Christian woman as well as two men to help in caring for the new arrivals.

" HE gently clears our way," wrote Mrs. Taylor the following Sunday. " On the morning of this day last week (Sept. 30) we knew not where we should store our goods, and had it not been that Captain Bell arranged for us to stay on board, we should not have known where to lay our heads. That any missionary would be able to receive us all seemed impossible ; and here God had in readiness one who not only can accommodate our party, but whose views concerning missionary work coincide in large measure with Hudson's. All our goods, with the exception of a few boxes not yet brought out of the hold, are safe in Mr. Gamble's ` go-down,' where Hudson and I and four of the young men sleep. The others are in Mr. Gamble's house, where we all take our meals ; and he has kindly promised, though somewhat reluctantly I believe, to allow us to remunerate him for our board."

At the end of the " go-down " the floor of the stage remained, and on this were extemporised sleeping compartments-sheets being pinned together for walls and a stepladder doing duty as staircase.

" There is no lack of ventilation," wrote one of those billeted there, " the windows being unglazed, square openings, supplemented by plenty of crevices in the roof. The wind makes noises ghostly enough for any romance ; and the rats keep up a perpetual scuffle among our boxes and the loose straw. On windy nights our linen walls are very restless indeed ; but there is not much difficulty in sleeping after a long day's work."

" We had our two stoves put up," recalled another, who with her Swiss training was a competent laundress, " and with washing, mangling, and ironing going on at the same time . . . the warehouse was as busy as a beehive. We often wished friends at home could have looked in upon us, just to see how happy we all were ! It would have rejoiced their hearts to see how lovingly, how kindly the Lord was dealing with His children."

" Missionary work under the most favourable conditions," was Miss Faulding's impression of it all ! " Mr. Taylor does manage so nicely for us ; he thoroughly understands how to go about everything."

In the midst of many occupations he had little time for writing, and little thought to give to the criticisms that buzzed about the foreign community. That ladies should be brought out to wear Chinese dress and live in the interior roused indignation in certain quarters. It was freely hinted that Mr. Taylor must be a madman or worse, and that Bedlam would have been a safer destination for himself and his companions than Shanghai. " But he went quietly on, as Mr. Rudland remembered, " saying little or nothing about it ; always letting discourtesies drop out of sight so graciously, without affecting his own friendliness."

One of the few letters Mr. Taylor did manage to write from Shanghai was to his mother.

" The Lord is with us," he said, " and we are all, I trust, enjoying fellowship with Jesus. We have and may expect to have some trials

But with humble faith to see

Love inscribed upon them all,

This is happiness to me.

Our Father not only knows, but sends them all in love."

The next stage of their journey was to be a leisurely one, via the Grand Canal to Hang-chow, the far-famed capital of the neighbouring province. Here it was hoped they might be enabled to commence operations and, with Mr. Stevenson between them and Ningpo, complete a chain of C.I.M. stations a hundred miles into the interior.1 {1 Hang-chow and Ningpo, about a hundred miles apart, form approximately an equilateral triangle, with Shanghai as its apex.}At one or other of the cities en route Mr. Taylor expected to leave some of the young men with the evangelist. They were to travel by native house-boats, giving regular hours to study, and waiting upon God as to their ultimate location.

To take so large a party inland at all was a step of faith, especially as it included an English nurse and four little children, besides six 'unmarried ladies. In the whole of China, at that time, there was not one unmarried lady missionary to be found away from the treaty ports ; and the entire staff of such workers, including these new arrivals, numbered only seventeen. Seventeen missionary women free to devote their time to schools, hospitals, and evangelisation it was a mere nothing, even for the ports ! And away from those few, coast-board cities, scarcely a voice was raised to tell of Redeeming Love to the women and children of half the heathen world. " The Lord giveth the word the women that publish the tidings are a great host." 1{1 Psalm 68:2. R.V.} To add to their number in China and facilitate their all-important work was one of Mr. Taylor's chief objects in the formation of the Inland Mission, and he was prepared to let devoted women make the sacrifices necessary and to take upon himself the responsibility of helping them in every way possible.

For their protection as well as to lessen difficulties he considered the wearing of native dress essential, with a large measure of conformity to Chinese manners and customs.

" In my judgment," he wrote on this subject, " the adoption of the Chinese costume would be desirable even were we residing in the treaty ports ; but for work in the interior such as we contemplate I am satisfied that it is an absolute pre-requisite. No foreign missionary to the best of my knowledge ever has, in European costume, carried on such a work ; and my strong conviction is that, at present, no foreign missionary could do so. He may travel under the protection of his passport almost anywhere ; but quietly to settle among the people, obtaining free and familiar communication with them, conciliating their prejudices, winning their esteem and confidence, and so living as to be an example to them of what Chinese Christians should be, requires the adoption not merely of their costume but of their habits also to a very considerable extent. Merely to put on their dress, and act regardless of their thoughts and feelings, is to make a burlesque of the whole matter, and will probably lead the person so adopting it to conclude, before long, that it is of very little value ' to him. But I have never heard of any one, after a bona fide attempt to become Chinese to the Chinese that he might gain the Chinese, who either regretted the course taken or wished to abandon it."

The grounds upon which this sacrifice was advocated were so important that we venture to give further extracts. 1{1 The letter, which was a long one, was written to help Mr. Berger in putting the matter before young people at home who were candidates for the Mission.}

Had our Lord appeared on earth as an angel of light, He would doubtless have inspired far more awe and reverence, and would have gathered even larger multitudes to attend His ministry. But to save man He became man, not merely like man. And further, the immediate objects of His personal ministry being under the law " (" the lost sheep of the house of Israel ") He -likewise was born " under the law," not a mere proselyte but a real Jew ; " for it became Him in all things to be made like unto His brethren." In language, in appearance, in everything not sinful He made Himself one with those He sought to benefit. Had He been born a noble Roman rather than a Jew, He would perhaps, if less loved, have commanded more of a certain kind of respect, and would assuredly have been spared much of the indignity He suffered. This, however, was not His aim : He " emptied Himself." Surely no follower of the meek and lowly Jesus will be likely to conclude that it is " beneath the dignity of a Christian missionary " to seek identification with this great though benighted people, in the hope that he may see them washed, sanctified, justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of our God. . . .

I am not alone in the opinion that the foreign dress and carriage of missionaries (to a certain extent affected by some of their pupils and converts), the foreign appearance of chapels, and indeed the foreign air imparted to everything connected with their work has seriously hindered the rapid dissemination of the Truth among the Chinese. And why should such a foreign aspect be given to Christianity ? The Word of God does not require it ; nor, I conceive, could sound reason justify it. It is not the denationalisation but the Christianisation of this people that we seek. We wish to see' Chinese Christians raised up-men and women truly Christian, but withal truly Chinese in every right sense of the word. We wish to see churches of such believers presided over by pastors and officers of their own countrymen, worshipping God in the land of their fathers, in their own tongue, and in edifices of a thoroughly native style of architecture. " It is enough that the disciple be as His Master." If we really wish to see the Chinese such as we have described, let us as far as possible set before them a true example. Let us in everything not sinful become Chinese, that we may by all means " save some." Let us adopt their dress, acquire their language, seek to conform to their habits and approximate to their diet as far as health and constitution will allow. Let us live in their houses, making no unnecessary alteration in external form, and only so far modifying their internal arrangements as health and efficiency for work absolutely require.

This cannot but involve, of course, a certain measure of inconvenience, such as the sacrifice of some accustomed articles of diet, etc. But will any one reflecting on what HE gave up Who left heaven's throne to be cradled in a manger ; Who, having filled all things and wielded omnipotence, became a feeble infant wrapped in swaddling clothes ; Who from being the loved one of the Father-never misjudged, never unappreciated, and receiving the ceaseless adoration of all the hierarchies of heaven-became a despised Nazarene, misunderstood by His most faithful followers, neglected and rejected by men who owed Him their very being and whose salvation He had come to seek, and finally, mocked, spit upon, crucified and slain with thieves and outlaws, will any follower of Christ, reflecting on these things, hesitate to make the trifling sacrifice indicated above ?

We give you credit, dear friends, for being prepared to give up not these little things only, but a thousand times more for Christ's sake. . . . Let there be no reservation. Give yourself up wholly and fully to Him Whose you are and Whom you wish to serve in this work, and there can be no disappointment. But once let the question arise, "Are we called to give up this or that ? " once admit the thought, " I did not expect such and such inconvenience or privation," and your service will cease to be that free and happy one which is most conducive to efficiency and success. " God loveth a cheerful giver."

Mr. Taylor's companions of the Lammermuir party being one with him in these convictions, the change into native dress was effected without delay. They did not remain long enough in Shanghai to complete the ladies' outfits, but the young men submitted to the somewhat trying process of shaving the front part of the head and donning the queue and loose-fitting garb of the country, Mr. Taylor doing the same. Mrs. Taylor also appeared in Chinese costume at Mr. Gamble's table. To her it meant no little sacrifice. She had not worn it during her previous residence in China, and experience enabled her to realise something of the restrictions it must involve. `

" Things which are tolerated in us as foreigners, wearing foreign dress," she wrote to Mrs. Berger, " could not be allowed for a moment in native ladies. I do not at all mean to imply a doubt as to the desirability of the change ; but the nearer we come to the Chinese in outward appearance, the more severely will any breach of propriety according to their standards be criticised. Henceforth I must never be guilty, for example, of taking my husband's arm out of doors ! And in fifty or a hundred other ways we may, without great watchfulness, shock the Chinese by what would seem to them grossly immodest and unfeminine conduct Pray much for us in respect to this matter."

To avoid giving unnecessary offence in Shanghai, the step was not taken until after the meeting in which, at Mr. Gamble's invitation, a number of missionaries and others came together to commend the new enterprise to the guidance and blessing of God. Although Mr. Taylor and his fellow-workers were regarded none too cordially in certain quarters, they could not but feel on this occasion a real brotherliness of sympathy which was most encouraging.1-{1- It is interesting to recall the names of those who in x866 formed the staff of the two British and four American societies at work in Shanghai : they were the Revs. W. Muirhead and G. Owen (L.M.S.) ; Mr. Alex. Wylie (B. & F. Bible Society) ; the Revs. E. H. Thomson (Protes. Epis.) ; M. T. Yates (Southern Baptist) ; W. G. Cunnyngham, J. W. Lambuth, J. J. Allen, and M. L. Wood (Meth. Epis., South) ; J. M. Farnham, J. Wherry (Presby. Board), and Mr. W. Gamble of the Presby. Press. The kindness of Mr. Farnham and Mr. Gamble established a special sympathy between their mission and the C.I.M. which continues to this day.}And Mr. Gamble's interest had deepened into the warmest friendship. Indeed he was more than reluctant to part from - his adopted family, many though their claims had been upon his time and resources. Accompanying them to the river on Saturday evening, the loth of October, he hardly knew how to say good-bye. The junks on which they were to travel were moored out in. the stream, and all the party had left the jetty save Mr. Taylor and Rudland. Busy with helpful services to the last, Mr. Gamble quietly laid a package on the seat of the sampan, stepped ashore, and was gone amid the shadows. It was the roll of dollars he had reluctantly accepted in payment for their board, and on a slip of paper he had written, " For the good of the Mission."

It was " the fairest night imaginable," and dropping down-stream in the moonlight the travellers were soon alongside the dear old Lammermuir.1-{1- To the sorrow of the missionary party, who had continued to hold meetings on board, some of the crew had fallen back into old habits amid the temptations of port life. " Their deep contrition, however," Mr.Taylor was able to write, " encourage us to hope that they are really children of God " ; and others, both among the officers and men, gave only cause for rejoicing.} The sailors saw them coming and were all on deck to meet them. In the forecastle a last, brief service was held. " Yes, we part, but not for ever," was sung on the well-remembered deck. Then with a last look at their cabins, hallowed by sacred memories, and with many a farewell, the missionaries left for their boats. " Whither, pilgrims, are you going ? " was struck up by the ship's company.

" But that tells nothing apart from the singing," Miss Blatchley wrote, " of all the associations brought to mind that made many of the voices unsteady. As we pushed off, they stood along the bulwarks and, raising their caps, gave us three hearty English cheers. In the, moonlight and stillness we glided round the stem-sailors and midshipmen following on to the poop, where they repeated the cheers and stood looking after us till we passed out of sight." 2{2-One link with the Lammermuir still remained, for Mr. Brunton, formerly the dread of the crew, was with the young men on their boat. He came a little way up-country with us," continued Miss Blatchley; and on Sunday, in the beautiful sunset light, Mr. Taylor baptized him in the river." Hearing from this officer, doubtless, of their being without much in the way of European comforts, Captain Bell sent after them-before they could finally get away-two pots of butter, a barrel of treacle, a cooked ham, a joint of beef, and a cheese f To him the party had given a beautiful Bible and a travelling rug.}

Four weeks later it was a company thoroughly Chinese as to outward appearances that drew near the famous city of Hang-chow. The gipsy-life so romantic at first had become wearisome enough in their slow-going boats. Happily the days were fine with the crisp freshness of autumn, but the nights were bitterly cold, and it had become an urgent matter to find more adequate shelter. Nowhere on the way, however, had it been possible to rent premises. Again and again, just when it seemed they had succeeded, negotiations had fallen through, and from place to place they had been obliged to move on, an unbroken party.

Bravely they had kept up their studies and used every opportunity, with the help of their Chinese companions, for making known the Way of Life. But crowded quarters, repeated disappointments, and growing concern with regard to the reception that might be expected at their destination made the journey a trying one, bringing out both the strength and weakness of individual characters. All were suffering from the cold ; several, including the children, were more or less ill ; and the Ningpo servants began to talk about going home for the winter. The boat-people, needless to say, were full of complaints. Far from their accustomed waters, in a district dangerously unsettled through`' the Rebellion, they too were feeling the stress of anxiety, and were clamouring to be set free to return to Shanghai Altogether the situation was a critical one, and prayer was the only resource of much-tried hearts.

We were of ourselves just helpless," wrote one of the party, " but we knew that we were being led by the Hand that opens and no man shuts ; the Hand that had prepared for us at Shanghai a hospitable roof and storage for our goods ; so we prayed and moved forward, nothing doubting."

It was upon Mr. Taylor the burden pressed most heavily, as he left the boats in an unfrequented place near the city and set out with the evangelist to seek the home it was so necessary to find. When he was gone and they were left in a good deal of suspense, Mrs. Taylor gathered, all the party for united prayer. The circumstances affected her in quite a special way, for before long she was to lay in little Gracie's arms the baby-sister for whom the child was daily asking in her prayers. Yet that mother-heart, so tender in its solicitude, was perfectly at rest. " Who will bring me into the strong city ? " had come in her Psalm for that morning, " Who will lead me into Edom ? Wilt not Thou, 0 God ? . . . Give us help from trouble, for vain is the help of man. Through God we shall do valiantly." Quietly she read the passage now, and none who were present could ever forget the prayer that followed. It changed an hour of painful suspense into one of soul-outpouring, preparing the young missionaries as nothing else could have done for whatever news Mr. Taylor might bring.

And very soon he came. Before they could have expected it his voice was heard near' the boats-and with radiant face he was among them. Yes, all was well. The Lord had indeed gone before. Just as in Shanghai, a home was ready, waiting ! '

Knowing that a friend of Ningpo days, belonging to the same Mission as Mr. Gamble, had recently moved to Hangchow, Mr. Taylor called on him first of all to acquaint him with their arrival. '

" We have been expecting you," was Mr. Green's kindly welcome, " and I have a message you may be glad to receive."

A young American missionary, it appeared, had just left the city to bring his wife and child from Ningpo to the home he had prepared for them. His house, furnished and ready, would be empty for a week at least, and he had bethought him of Mr. Taylor's party.

" Tell them," he said to Mr. Green, " to go straight to my place when they come. It is at their disposal for the time being."

The house wag on a quiet street and could be reached 'in boats without observation. Mr. Kreyer was not expected back for several days, and all they had to do was to take possession. Well can one imagine the praise meeting that was held then and there, before the boats moved on

" Who will bring me into the strong city? Who will lead me into Edom ? Wilt not Thou, 0 God ? "

Chapter 6Table of ContentsChapter 8